Multicultural Relations Home
Commitment and Direction
Our Purpose
Meet the Director
Organizations and Entities
Campus Highlights
Celebrating the World
Stories In Ministry
International/Intercultural Services
L.I.V.E. Symposium
Contact Us

Diversity & Inclusion Resources
Web Sites
F1 Visa Information
Diversity Focus
Diversity Glossary
Seminary Council/Institutional Diversity

Campus Resources
Action Plan Committee
Public Events Calendar
Seminary Catalogue

Back to Student Services

General Articles on Diversity Matters

Asian Pacific American Demographic Information

The House Issues an Apology for Slavery

Funderberg, L. Black, White, Other: Biracial Americans Talk About Race and Identity (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1994).

Root, M. P. P., ed. Racially Mixed People in America (Newbury Park: Sage Publ., 1992).

Articles on Diversity, Race and Inclusion in Higher Education

Wijeyesinghe, C.L., "Multiracial Identity in a Monoracial World," The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education 6 (8): 16–17.

Zack, N. Race and Mixed Race (Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993)

Abalos, David T.  1996. Strategies of Transformation Toward a Multicultural Society.  Fulfilling the Story of Democracy. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Adair, Vivyan C.  2001. Poverty and the Broken Promise of Higher Education.  Harvard Educational Review, Summer: 217-239

Alimo, C., Kelly, R., and Clark, C.  2002.  Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education: Inter-group Dialogue Program Student Outcomes and Implications for Campus Racial Climate.  Multicultural Education, 10 (1): 49-53.

American Council on Education.  2006.  Students of Color Make Dramatic Gains in College Enrollment but Still Trail Whites in the Rate at Which They Attend College.  Washington, D.C.  

American Council on Education.  2000.  Does Diversity Make a Difference? Three Research Studies on Diversity in College Classrooms.

Amici Curiae Briefs.  2003.  Colleges: Amherst, Barnard, Bates, Bowdoin, Bryn Mawr, Carleton, Colby, Connecticut, Davidson, Franklin & Marshall, Hamilton, Hampshire, Haverford, Macalester, Middlebury, Mount Holyoke, Oberlin, Pomona, Sarah Lawrence, Smith, Swarthmore, Trinity, Vassar, Wellesley, Williams Colleges, Colgate University, Wesleyan and Tufts Universities, Amici Curiae, Supporting Respondents to the Supreme Court of the United States submitted By Charles S. Sims, Counsel of Record, Proskauer Rose Llp, 1585 Broadway, New York, NY 10036.

Antonio, A.  2001.  The Role of Interracial Interaction in the Development of Leadership Skills and Cultural Knowledge and Understanding.  Research in Higher Education 42 (5): 593-617.

Appel, M., Cartwright, D., Smith, D., and Wolf, L.  1996.  The Impact of Diversity on Students.  A Preliminary Review of the Research Literature.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 

Association of American Colleges and Universities.  Why Can’t We Talk about Race? Racial Legacies and Learning: An American Dialogue.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Association of American Colleges and Universities.  2007.  College Learning for the New Global Century: A Report from the National Leadership Council for Liberal Education and America’s Promise.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Association of American Colleges and Universities.  2002.  Greater Expectations: A New Vision for Learning as a Nation Goes to College.  National Panel Report.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Association of American Colleges and Universities.  1995.  American Pluralism and the College Curriculum: Higher Education in a Diverse Democracy.  Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 

Astin, A., Keup, J., and Lindholm, J.  2002.  A Decade of Changes in Undergraduate Education: A National Study of System Transformation.  The Review of Higher Education, 25 (2): 141-162.

Bowen, W.; Kurzweil, M.; and Tobin, E.  2005. Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education.  Charlottesville, VA.: University of Virginia Press.

Bowen, W., Kurzweil, M., and Tobin, E.  2005.  From “Bastions of Privilege” to “Engines of Opportunity.”  Chronicle of Higher Education, 51 (25): B18-B18.

Bowen, W., and Rudenstine, N.  2003.  Race-Sensitive Admissions: Back to Basics.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 49 (22): B7.

Bowen, W. and Derek B,  1998.  The Shape of The River.  Long Term Consequences of Considering Race in College and University Admissions.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Carnes, J.  1995.  Us and Them: A History of Intolerance in America. Montgomery, AL:  Teaching Tolerance.

Chang, M.  2006.  Affirmative Action: Racial Preference in Black and White.  Journal of Higher Education, 77 (5): 930-932.

Chang, M., Denson, N., Sáenz, V., and Misa, K.  2006.  The Educational Benefits of Sustaining Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates.  Journal of Higher Education, 77 (3): 430-455.

Chang, M., Astin, A., and Kim, D.  2004.  Cross-Racial Interaction Among Undergraduates: Some Consequences, Causes, and Patterns.  Research in Higher Education, 45 (5): 529-553.

Chang, M.  2002.  Preservation or Transformation: Where’s the Real Educational Discourse on Diversity?  The Review of Higher Education, 25 (2): 125-140.

Chang, M.  2000.  Improving Campus Racial Dynamics: A Balancing Act Among Competing Interests.  Review of Higher Education 23 (3): 153-75.

Clayton-Pedersen, A., Parker, S., Smith, D., Moreno, J., and Hiroyuki Teraguchi, D.  2007.  Making a Real Difference with Diversity: A Guide Change.  Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Cole, J.  2000.  Bridging the Diversity Divide: A Necessary Challenge for Higher Education in the
21st Century
EDUCAUSE, Forum For the Future of Higher Education.

College Board.  2006.  College-Bound Seniors, State Profile Report, New York.

Coleman, A., Palmer, S., Richards, F., Holland and Knight, Llp.  2005.  Federal Law, Financial Aid, and Scholarships: A Framework for Evaluating Diversity.  New York: The College Board. 

Coleman, A., Palmer, S., Nixon and Peabody, Llp.  2004.  Diversity in Higher Education: A Strategic Planning Manual Regarding Federal Law in Admissions, Financial Aid, and Outreach. 
2nd Edition.  New York: the College Board.

Gaff, J. (Editor).  2002.  The Academy in Transition.  Association of American Colleges and Universities.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

García, M., Hudgins, C., McTighe Musil, C., Nettles, M., Sedlacek, W., and Smith, D.  2001.  Assessing Campus Diversity Initiatives: A Guide for Campus Practitioners.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Henquinet. J., Phibbs, A., and Skoglund, B.  2000.  Supporting Our Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Students.  About Campus (November-December): 24-26.

Hewlett Foundation.  2001.  General Education in Pluralism and Unit: A Program in Higher Education.

Howell, A., and Tuitt, F. 2003.  Race and Higher Education: Rethinking Pedagogy in Diverse College Classrooms.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.

Hu, S., and Kuh, G.  2003.  Diversity Experiences and College Students Learning and Personal Development.  Journal of College Student Development 44 (3): 320-334.

Hurtado, S.  1999.  Reaffirming Educators’ Judgment: Educational Value of Diversity.  Liberal Education, 85 (2): 24.

Hurtado, S., and Carter, D.  1997.  Effects of College Transition and Perceptions of the Campus Racial Climate on Latino Students’ Sense of Belonging.  Sociology of Education, 70 (4): 324-345.

Hurtado, S., Inkelas, K., Briggs, C., and Rhee, B.  1997. Differences in College Access and Choice Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Identifying Continuing Barriers.  Research in Higher Education,
38 (1): 43-75.

Ibarra, R.  2001.  Beyond Affirmative Action: Reframing the Context of Higher Education.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Joint Statement of the Constitutional Law Scholars.  2003.  Reaffirming Diversity: A Legal Analysis of the University of Michigan Affirmative Action Cases.  Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

MacLachlan, A.  2004.  Research Addressing Institutional Challenges in Science and Engineering to Increase Faculty of Color: Keeping Our Faculties.  Conference.  University of Minnesota.

Mansbridge, J.  1999.  Should Blacks Represent Blacks and Women Represent Women? A Contingent “Yes.”  The Journal of Politics, 61 (3): 628-57.

Mcintosh, P.  2007.  White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.  In: Rothenberg, P. Ed., Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study.  Seventh Edition.  Worth Publishers.

McLeod, P., Lobel, S., Coc, T.  1993.  Cultural Diversity and Creativity in Small Groups: A Test of the Value Congruence Process and Its Relationship to Individual Outcomes.  Working Paper.  University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

McTighe Musil, C., Garcia, M., Moses, Y., Smith, D.  1995.  Diversity in Higher Education: A Work in Progress.  Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Milem, J., Chang, M., and Lising Antonio, A.  2005.  Making Diversity Work on Campus: A Research-Based Perspective.  Washington, D.C.: American Colleges and Universities.

Moreno, J., Smith, D., Parker, S., Clayton-Pedersen, A., Parker, S., and Hiroyuki Teraguchi, D.  2006.  The Revolving Door for Under-Represented Minority Faculty in Higher Education: An Analysis from the Campus Diversity Initiative.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Moreno, J., Smith, D., Parker, S., Clayton-Pedersen, A., and Hiroyuki Teraguchi, D.  2006.  Using Multiple Lenses: An Examination of the Economic and Racial/Ethnic Diversity of College Students.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Nagda, B., Gurin, P., Lopez, G.  2003.  Transformative Pedagogy for Democracy and Social Justice. 
Race Ethnicity and Education, 6 (2): 165-191.

Office of Human Relations Programs, University of Maryland, College Park, and the Association of American Colleges and Universities.  1998.  Diversity Blueprint: A Planning Manual for Colleges and Universities.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Pascarella, E., Palmer, M., and Pierson, C.  2001.  Do Diversity Experiences Influence the Development of Critical Thinking?  Journal of College Student Development, 42 (3): 257-271.

Putnam, R.  2007.  E Pluribus Unum: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century: Diversity and Community in the Twenty-first Century:  Scandinavian Political Studies, 30, (2): 137-174.

Paulsen, M., and St. John, E.  2002.  Social Class and College Costs.  The Journal of Higher Education,
73 (2): 189-236. 

Saenz, V., Ngai, H., and Hurtado, S.  2007.  Factors Influencing Positive Interactions Across Race for African American, Asian American, Latino, and White College Students. Research in Higher Education, 48 (1): 1-38.

Shaw, E.  2005.  Researching the Educational Benefits of Diversity.  Research Report No. 2005-4.
New York: The College Board.

Sotello Viernes Turner, C.  2002.  Diversifying the Faculty: A Guidebook to Committees. 
Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Smith, D. and Wolf-Wendel, L.  2005.  The Challenge of Diversity: Involvement or Alienation in the Academy. ASHE Higher Education Report, 31 (1).  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, D., Turner, C., Osei-Kofi, N., and Richards, S.  2004.  Interrupting the Usual:  Successful Strategies for Hiring Diverse Faculty.  Journal of Higher Education, 75 (2): 133-160.

Smith, D., Garcia, M., Hudgins, C., McTghe Musil, C., Neettles, M., and Sedlacek, W.  2000.  A Diversity Research Agenda.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Smith, D., Schonfeld, N.  2000.  The Benefits of Diversity: What the Research Tells Us.  About Campus (November-December): 16-23.

Smith, D., Wolf, L., and Busenberg, B.  1996.  Achieving Faculty Diversity.  Debunking the Myths. Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Swail, W, Redd, K., and Perna, L.  2003.  Retaining Minority Students in Higher Education: A Framework for Success.  ASHE-ERIC Monograph Series, 30 (2).  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Tatum, B.  2004. The Road to Racial Equality.  Black Issues in Higher Education, 21 (10): 34-34.

Tatum, B.  2004.  Building a Road to a Diverse Society.  Chronicle of Higher Education, 50 (30): B6-B7.

Tatum, B.  2000.  Examining Racial and Cultural Thinking.  Educational Leadership (May): 54-57.

Tatum, B.  1992.  Talking about Race, Learning about Racism: the Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom.  Harvard Educational Review, 62 (1): 1-24.

Turner, C.  2003.  Incorporation and Marginalization in the Academy: From Border Toward Center for Faculty of Color? Journal of Black Studies, 34 (1): 112-125.

Turner, C.  2002.  Diversifying the Faculty: A Guidebook for Search Committees.  Washington D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

Turner, C.  2002.  Women of Color in Academe.  Journal of Higher Education, 73 (1): 74-93.

Turner, C., and Myers Jr., S.  1999.  Exploring Under-Representation.  Journal of Higher Education,
70 (1): 27-59.

Zuniga, X. (1998).  Fostering Inter-Group Dialogue on Campus: Essential Ingredients.  Diversity
            Digest: 10-12.

This section includes a selection of recent books, worship resources, and videos that may be helpful in the study of race and racism.

A Country of Strangers: Blacks and Whites in America.  By David K. Shipler. Knopf, 1997. Shipler's book documents many conversations with black ans white people in the United States today, revealing the gaps present in communications and perceptions along racial lines.

America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. By Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom. Simon and Schuster, 1997. This book provides and overview of what has changed and what remains the same for black Americans in the last 50 years.  The authors come to the conclusion that traditional civil rights approaches are no longer adequate to address remaining problems, which they see as a result of low levels of education, black family structure, and crime - not racism.

America's Original Sin: A Study Guide on White Racism. Sojourners, 2nd edition, 1992. Sojourners' popular, in-depth exploration of the legacy of racism. This 180-page guide offers churches and communities biblical tools to understand and combat racism. It also includes a large listing of items for further study and organizations to contact.

Black and White Together: The Search for Common Ground. By Danny Duncan Collum. Orbis Books, 1996. Collum's book traces little-known events of history in which blcak and white people-abolitionists, labor unions, church groups-found common causes for social change.

Black Liberation in Conservative America. By Manning Marable. South End Press, 1997. This collection of political commentaries calls for a rethinking of black liberation in the context of a racially and politically transformed America.  It covers issues such as public policy, African-American women, education, black-Latino unity, and multiculturalism.

The Bridge Over the Racial Divide: Rising Inequality and Coalition Politics. By William Julius Wilson. University of California Press, 1999. A call for a multiracial, progressive coalition to fight rising inequality in America.

Dismantling Racism: The Continuing Challenge to White America. By Joseph Barndt. Augsburg Fortress, 1991. A foundational book for the study of overcoming racism. Primarily directed towards a white audience, Barndt moves beyond individual racism to the permeation of racism in culture, institutions and churches.

Divided Sisters: Bridging the Gap Between Black Women and White Women. By Midge Wilson and Kathy Russell. Anchor Books, 1996. This book challenges women to join with one another to confront their most basic expressions of racism focusing on issues of beauty and style, sexuality, social activism, pop culture, and friendship.

Entering the River: Healing Steps From White Priviledges to Racial Reconciliation
. By Tobin Miller Shearer. Herald Press, 1994. A study guide focused on preparing participants to take biblically based, antiracist action as individuals and a a group. Available on the Web at Print copies may be obtained by contacting the Racism Awareness Program of the Mennonite Central Committee.

Face to Face: The Changing State of Racism Across America. By James Waller. Insight Books, 1998. A compelling analysis of race in America that contrasts blatant "old-fashioned' racism to more socially acceptable forms of 'modern' racism.

40 Ways to Raise a Non-Racist Child. By Barbara Mathias and Mary Ann French. HarperCollins, 1996. This easy-to-read book offers practical suggestions for families with children of all ages to resist racism in the home, in relationships, and in their community.

Free Indeed. Mennonite Central Committee,1995. A video drama about racism and white priviledge designed to provoke thought and discussion on difficult questions.

The Gospel in Black and White: Theological Resources for Racial Reconciliation. Edited by Dennis L. Okholm. InterVarsity Press, 1998. This book includes essays on theological work that can contribute to racial reconciliation. Black and white Christian thinkers address issues of theological method, hermeneutics, soteriology, ecclesiology, and social ethics with an eye to healing the wound of racism.

Healing the Heart of America. Hope in Cities, 1993. A video that documents the journey of a city through the shameful landmarks of slavery and racism in order to build relationships for the future and begin an honest conversation on race, reconciliation, and responsibility.

He's My Brother: Former racial Foes Offer a Strategy for Reconciliation. By John Perkins and Thomas A. Tarrants, III. Baker Book House, 1994. A black civil rights activist and a former Klansman tell the dramatic stories of Christ's intervention in their lives and the heart-changing events that put them on the roads to reconciliation rather than hate.

Home Was the Land of the Morning Calm: A Saga of a Korean-American Family.
By K. Connie Kang. Addison-Westley Publishing, 1995. An autobiography that confronts the confusion of identity, home, and the racial complications of staking a claim in America, reminding us to listen to others' stories, especially those who are marginalized.

The Invention of the White race: Racial Oppression and Social Control (Volume 1, 1994) and The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo America (Volume 2, 1997). By Theodore Allen. Verso. Volume 1 provides an in-depth study of "whiteness," using the context of Ireland and the Irish experience with Great Britian as a model for investigating racial oppression devoid of alleged color difference. Volume 2 continues the study by making connections between present and societal structures and tracing the power of "whiteness" in American culture.

Jews and Blacks: A Dialogue on Race, Religion, and Culture in America
. Michael Lerner and Cornel West. Plume, 1996. This dialogue explores the relationship between blacks and Jews in American society and offers hopeful strategies for reconciliation and healing for both groups.

Justice: A Question of Race. By Roberto Rodriguez. Bilingual Press, 1997. This personal account of police brutality is an indictment of a society that treats its citizens with varied levels of justice according to skin color and cultural background.

Liberal Racism. By Jim Sleeper. Viking Press, 1997. A liberal's critique of post-civil rights liberalism that promotes outdated policies and views on race which have served to divide America  racially.

More Than Equals: Racial healing for the Sake of the Gospel. By Spencer Perkins and Chris Rice. InterVarsity Press, 1993. Co-authors and former ministry patners, Chris Rice and the late Spencer Perkins present a model of intentional unity and crossing of barriers, not just for the sake of racial harmony, but to spread the gospel.

One by One From the Inside Out: Essays and Reviews on Race and Resposibility in America. By Glenn C. Loury. Free Press, 1995. This book contains essays focused on responsibility, healing, and reconciliation, and reviews recent works dealing with race.

Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63. Touchstone Press, 1989. Pillar and Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65. Simon and Schuster, 1998. By Taylor Branch. The first two installments of a trilogy provide a history of the civil rights movement thatuses Martin Luther King Jr. as the touchstone for American history in the postwar years.

Race Matters. By Cornel West. Beacon Press, 1993. Fusing African-American religious tradition with the political insights of Malcolm X and the Black Panthers, this book focuses on healing the nation of racism by bodly facing present realities.

Racism: A Worship Resource Packet.
Mennonite Central Committee. An extensive collection of litanies, readings, sermon outlines, scriptural reflections, and other materials for worship settings.

Reconciliation: Our Greatest Challenge-Our Only Hope. By Curtiss Paul DeYoung. Judson Press, 1997. DeYoung presents a holistic appraoch to racial reconciliation based on biblical values requiring "taking reponsibility, seeking forgiveness, repairing the wrong, healing the soul, and creating a new way of thinking."

Strangers Among Us: How Latino Immigration is Transforming America. By Roberto Suro. Knopf, 1998. This book describes the immigrant patterns of Latinos into the United States and investigates how Latino culture has affected the nation's self-concept.

Walk Together Children. Baptist Peace Fellowship of North America,1997. Created as a resource for the "Promise of Penetecost" movement of racial reconciliation, this ecumenical resource is for congregations in partnership accross racial lines.

"Why Are All The Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria?"
And Other Converstions About race. By Beverly Daniel Tatum. Basic Books, 1997. Developmental psychologist Tatum urges that each of us must strive to affirm our racial identities. For people of color, a positive racial identity helps overcome negative stereotypes. For whites, the challenge is to develop a racial identity that leads to an awareness of white priviledge and to work against injustice.